hitorkoal - Philidor1792
1.e4 e5 2.Nf3 Bc5
An old line, going back at least as far as Salvio's analysis in Il Puttino, altramente detto, il Cavaliero Errante, del Salvio, sopra el gioco de Scacchi, (1604), it is currently referred to as the Busch-Gass Gambit ( See "Worth A Second Look" Part 1, Part 2, and Part 3; as well as "Busch-Gass Gambit").
Chiodini's Gambit. Chessville.com had a good article by Clyde Nakamura on the line. (Chessville is no longer functioning, but I was able to use the WayBackMachine to recover the article; the link should be good.)
Interestingly, Nakamura in his article on Chiodini's Gambit quotes analysis by Stefano Vezzani, an email friend of his, which gives this move a "??" and refers to it as "a common mistake".
A light-hearted alternative: 4...Qh4 5.Bc4 Qxf2 checkmate, Nguyen Bao Do - Dich Tai Khuu, VIE-ch, U07, 2014.
Or 5.d4 Bxd4 6.Be3 Bxe3 7.fxe3 Qxf7 8.Nc3 Nf6 9.Bd3 0-0 10.0-0 d6 11.Nd5 Ne5 12.Qe1 Be6 13.Nxf6+ gxf6 14.Be2 Kh8 15.Qh4 Qg6 16.Rf4 Qg5 17.Qf2 Ng6 18.h4 Qe5 19.Rf3 Bg4 20.Rf4 Bxe2 21.Rf5 Qxe4 22.Rxf6 Bg4 23.Rf1 Kg7 24.h5 Bxh5 White resigned, Ake - Evilonek, ICC, 1998.
Here we have reached the end of Vezzani's analysis of the sub-variation, a position he evaluates as a winning advantage for Black ("-+").
Houdini 3 considers it simply advantageous for Black (by about a pawn).
As we will see - and as many have seen while facing "Jerome pawns", things are still not easy.
From a strategic point of view, Houdini suggests retreating the Bishop to the Kingside with 6...Be7.
7.d4 Bb6 8.g3 0-0 9.Bg2 d5 10.e5 Ne8
Instead, Houdini suggests the cold-blooded madness of 10...Nxe5!? 11.dxe5 Ng4 12.f4 Bf2+ 13.Kf1 Bb6 14.Na3 Bf5 but I am not sure how appealing that is to human players.
11.0-0 Be6 12.f4 g6 13.Nd2 Qd7 14.Nf3 Bg4 15.Qe3 Ng7 16.Ng5 h6 17.Nf3 Bh3
18.Nh4 Bxg2 19.Kxg2 Nf5 20.Nxf5 Qxf5 21.Bd2 Ne7 22.Rac1 Rac8 23.h3 h5 24.Qf3 c5
25.g4 hxg4 26.hxg4 Qe4 27.Qxe4 dxe4 28.dxc5 Bxc5 29.Rce1 Rcd8 30.Bc1 e3 31.Bxe3 Bxe3 32.Rxe3 Rd2+ 33.Rf2 Rxf2+ 34.Kxf2 Rxf4+ 35.Kg3 Ra4
36.a3 Ra5 37.c4 Rc5 38.Re4 Kf7 39.b4 Rc6 40.Kf4 Ke6 41.Ke3 Ra6 42.Kd4 Rxa3 43.Rf4 Nc6+ 44.Ke4 Nxe5 45.g5 Nd7
With patience, Black has captured a couple of pawns.
46.Kd4 Rg3 47.Re4+ Kd6 48.c5+ Kc7 49.b5 Rxg5 50.c6 bxc6 51.bxc6 Kxc6 52.Re6+ Kc7 53.Ra6 Kb7 54.Ra3 a5
55.Ke4 Kb6 56.Rb3+ Rb5 57.Ra3 a4 58.Kf4 Ka5 59.Ra1 Nc5 60.Rg1 Rb6 61.Ke5 a3 62.Kd4 a2 63.Kxc5 Rb1 64.Rxg6 Rc1+ 65.Kd4 a1Q+ 66.Kd3 Qb1+ 67.Kd2 Qxg6 68.Kxc1 Qg2 69.Kd1 Kb4 70.Ke1 Kc3 71.Kd1 Qf1 checkmate